Citizenship education, inclusive education and integration of migrants in education
Analysis of five european countries: Croatia, Italy, Spain, Slovenia and Macedonia
GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP AND INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION
Citizenship competence includes three connected functional dimensions: Citizenship knowledge and understanding, Citizenship skills and competences, and Citizenship values and attitudes. Those dimensions are singled out according to the 2002 Council of Europe Recommendation for Democratic Citizenship and 2010 Council of Europe Charter on Education for Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights Education, in which they are important for empowering citizens with readiness for active participation in Citizenship, political, social, economic, legal and cultural spheres of society (Croatian Citizenship Education Curriculum, 2012). That is why the Council of Europe and European Parliament recognised Citizenship and interpersonal competence as one of eight key competences for lifelong learning that has to be developed since preschool until higher education. It is important for “personal fulfillment, active citizenship, social cohesion, and employability” (Recommendation 2006/962/EC).
Citizenship competence is important for an active life in a community and for development of democratic political culture. Higher levels of competences are positively connected with important elements of democratic political culture, and some of them are “higher consistency of political attitudes and values regarding different political questions and problems, higher level of political trust, lower levels of political alienation, higher levels of normative support of democracy and higher levels of readiness for political engagement” (Galton 2001, according to Šalaj, 2005:18). Bergan (2007) explains that democratic culture depends on properly developed abilities such as: the ability to analyse, the ability to clearly present the problem, the ability to recognise alternative solutions, the ability to examine the problem from different angles, the ability to go beyond the framework of one’s own standpoint, the ability to solve and prevent conflicts, and the ability to draw conclusions and apply them in practice. Citizenship competence is built in schools through Citizenship or citizenship education. Also, the role of non-formal learning is immportant for the development of Citizenship education.
Global citizenship and intercultural education enables the development of the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes needed for securing a just, sustainable world in which everyone has the right to fulfil his/her potential.
Global education is an umbrella term for pedagogical concepts related to the realities of today’s world. It is therefore an open, ongoing, multidimensional concept of timely general education. Beyond that, it is also regarded as a collective, holistic response to the historical challenge of supporting active global citizens in creating and recreating a different, more equal, just, peaceful and sustainable world based on solidarity.
Global education is an education perspective which arises from the fact that contemporary people live and interact in an increasingly globalised world. This makes it crucial for education to give learners the opportunity and competences to reflect and share their own point of view and role within a global, interconnected society, as well as to understand and discuss complex relationships of common social, ecological, political and economic issues, so as to derive new ways of thinking and acting. Global education is understood to encompass Development Education, Human Rights Education, Education for Sustainability, Education for Peace and Conflict Prevention and Intercultural Education; being the global dimension of Education for Citizenship (he Maastricht Global Education Declaration, 2002).
Global education as transformative learning offers a way to make changes at local levels to influence the global in the sense of building citizenship through participatory strategies and methods, so that people learn by taking responsibilities that cannot be left only to governments and other decision makers. But global education is not only about global themes, world problems, and how to find solutions all together; it is also about how to envision a common future with better life conditions for all, connecting local and global perspectives, and how to make this vision real and possible, starting from our own small spot in the world. Transformative learning enables people to shape a common vision for a more just, sustainable world for all. A focus on the kind of future we want is therefore crucial in such a transformative vision.
Global education aims at educating citizens in social justice and sustainable development and helps learners to understand some of the complex processes leading to violence and conflict at individual, collective, national and global levels and be aware of some of the ways in which these conflicts can be prevented or resolved. By promoting an understanding of different cultures and more just and equal world for all, global education can contribute to the visioning process, but it can also play a role in the creation of new methods where social movements and non-formal learning processes are essential as they make room for values, issues and approaches not central to formal learning and give voice to all people, including the marginalised ones.
Three main stages of transformative learning are strongly linked to global education:
§ An analysis of the present world situation
§ A vision of what alternatives to dominant models might look like
§ A process of change towards responsible global citizenship
There is a noticeable growing need for intercultural education in today’s increasingly multicultural world. Not only are today’s societies already multicultural, but these tendencies are growing as a direct impact of recent societal tendencies unfolding in Europe and worldwide. Some of these tendencies are evident already in the last decades are: the globalisation of finance and the economy, of work and recreation, with its impact creating worldwide dependencies and uniform ways of life and lifestyles; rapidly increasingy private and professional mobility; the expansion of migration, which in many countries has led to the development of new minority groups in addition to already existing ones.“ All of these tendencies have led to multicultural societies, in which people from different nations, ethnic groups and religions increasingly mix, at a level unprecedented in previous periods of world history. These processes can however, warns the Council of Europe, create all kinds of social tensions and conflicts.  It emphasizes that the threats to social cohesion which increased multiculturalism brings, have to be counteracted by education for intercultural dialogue which depends on intercultural competence.
The term multicultural describes the culturally diverse nature of human society. It not only refers to elements of ethnic or national culture, but also includes linguistic, religious and socio-economic diversity.
Interculturality is a dynamic concept and refers to evolving relations between cultural groups. It has been deﬁned as “the existence and equitable interaction of diverse cultures and the possibility of generating shared cultural expressions through dialogue and mutual respect.” Interculturality presupposes multiculturalism and results from ‘intercultural’ exchange and dialogue on the local, regional, national or international level.
In order to strengthen democracy, education systems need to take into account the multicultural character of society, and aim at actively contributing to peaceful coexistence and positive interaction between different cultural groups. There have traditionally been two approaches: Multicultural Education and Intercultural Education. Multicultural education uses learning about other cultures in order to produce acceptance, or at least tolerance, of these cultures. Intercultural Education aims to go beyond passive coexistence, to achieve a developing and sustainable way of living together in multicultural societies through the creation of understanding of, respect for and dialogue between the different cultural groups.
Council of Europe thus urges a respond to this situation by developing learners’ intercultural competence through compulsory education. It sees of crucial importance the provision of educational strategies that raise awareness of the intercultural issues and foster intercultural dialogue and communication, addressing overlapping values but also differences. The experts also point out that in today’s Europe the existence of an education system which is able to develop intercultural awareness and skills on behalf of the entire school population will be „a fundamental testing ground for an increasingly multicultural Europe“.
CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN CROATIA’S EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
Since 1993 the compulsory subject Politics and Economics is integrated in Croatin high schools through one year (in year 3 of high school) (Eurydice, 2017). In 1999, The National Program of Education for Human Rights and Democratic Citizenship has been introduced as an optional program, thus it was unsystematically conducted through projects and extracurricular activities by enthuziastic teachers. In the school years of 2012/13 and 2013/14., the Curriculum for Citizenship/ Citizenship Education consisting from six dimensions: social, human rights, political, (inter)cultural, economical and ecological has been experimentally conducted in 12 schools (8 middle schools and 4 high schools).
After that, the Ministry of education stopped the curricular model and introduced The Program of Intersubjectivity and Interdisciplinary Content of Citizenship Education for students in primary and secondary schools. In the school year 2014/15 Citizenship Education has been officially implemented through the different subjects but the qouality of implementation was undocumented. Also, program continued to be separate elective subject in some schools. Some schools and local communities such as Rijeka decided to develop separate extra curricular activities of Citizenship education.
The main concerns about sucesful implementation of Citizenship education through existing model are: the absence of a systematic support of the ministry and the agencies in the field of education and their politization through the influances of political parties, the insufficient capacities to train each teacher for trans and intersubjectivity model that influanced on the fact that the“content is practiced on a minimum scale“since each subject has its own plan and program that has priority. Furthermore, there is a challange with teachers that are not fully prepared to talk about controversial topics (they are more likely to focus on fields that are generally known and are less controversial, such as preservation of nature and cultural heritage, tolerance and conflict resolution). When talking about this specific problem, it shows that implementing these questions and topics depend on the competence and motivation of educators in specific schools.
Global and intercultural education and promotion of intercultural dyalog is unsuficiant through the subjects but some good examples are developed through school projects and extracurricular activities. Information gathered by civil society organizations and research experts’ points to the need offurther development of political and media literacy of students and democratic attitudes regarding equality (gender equality, ethnic, national and religios equality and LGBT equality) and ecepting the difrences in plural society.
In non-formal citizenship education, there are programs conducted that involve students in volunteer and activist projects and activities. These activities cover; preventing bullying and human trafficking, educating about the importance of gender equality, mediation and educative programs for teachers. In addition to this, 46 civil societies, which deal with non-formal education organizations and human rights, they are all gathered into the GOOD initiative. This initiative advocates for a systematic introduction of education program for human rights and democratic citizenship in educational system. The experiences from non formal education could be useful for schools so for the future development of citizenship education it is immportant to encourage partnerships between schools and civil society.
- CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN ITALY’S EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
Formal education takes place in formal places which are formally recognized as school system, from primary school to university, with a wide range of specialized institutions or technical and vocational training. Throughout the formal curricular program, Citizenship and Constitutional Education is carried out in primary and secondary schools, Integrated into other compulsory subjects/ learning areas estimating 35 hours of practice throughout the year. There are five different fields of study, which include: environmental protection, traffic safety, health, nutrition, and The Constitution. Each of the fields are integrated through the subjects such as history, geography, thus social and natural sciences.
Non-formal education represents all those «educational activities organized» outside the formal education system. These activities are often organized by associations that can grant attendance certificates, instead of formally recognized study qualifications. Non formal citizenship education often includes participative methodology that involves the direct and conscious involvement of students through group works, role plays, laboratory activities, study cases, excercises, brain storming and cooperative learning.
- CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN SLOVENIA’S EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
Citizenship, patriotic culture and ethics (Državljanska in domovinska kultura in etika) is carried out as a mandatory subject in the seventh and eighth grade, providing in a year 35 hours of classwork. The curriculum for middle schoolers predicts the following concepts: individual, community and state; the political system of the state; human rights; faith, religion and state; democracy; finance, work and economy: European Union; and finally, globalization.
Students in high schools can choose the following elective subjects: Citizenship culture, education for peace, family and non-violence, health and ecology. The electives provided in high schools include further topics: constitution, poltical and economic system, society and state, non-violence and cultural peace, people’s health and environmental protection.
- CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN SPAIN’S EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
The Spanish educational system is currently going through a change in two legal acts. The new law is predicted to be implemented in the school year of 2016/2017. Currently, topics that deal with human rights and democratic Citizenship education are being carried out in middle schools (ages 6-12). These topics are being discussed through the mandatory subject social studies, thus through the elective called social values.
In mandatory high schools (ages 12-16) familiar topics (such as critical thinking, human rights) are included in the elective subject called Ethical values. Religious alternatives is an elective subject in both educational levels. In upper high schools (16-18) the educational content for human rights and democratic Citizenship education is carried out throughout the curriculum.
Good practice of some non-formal education includes the initiative „Model European Parliament“which is provided for students that are in the last years of high schools. The news web page „Procumum“ also demonstrates an example of good practice, where students are able to discover more on democratic transition, sustainable development, ethics and economy.
- CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN MACEDONIA’S EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
Citizenship education is performed as a mandatory subject in middle school years (specifically, in the eighth and ninth grade-ages 12 and 13), thus in the last year of high school (year 4). Some educational subjects which deal with human rights and democratic Citizenship education, health education and global education are carried out as interdisciplinary subjects.
The structure of intercultural education is currently carried out through elective subjects in middle school (11-14 years). This kind of structure offers a possibility of learning a language and culture that is a associated with the greater ethnic community. Moreover, there is also an opportunity to get to know different religions and specific cultural differences. Such examples of good practice which include a type of a non-formal education cover the model of integrating intercultural education called „Mozaik“. It is a model made by Nansen Dialogue Center Skopje. This comprehensive and systematic access provides startegic documents and plans with the aim of its implementation in the period between 2016-2021.
Information gathered by civil society organizations points to the need of „basic“ topics within Citizenship education – such as the topics of human rights, democracy, EU, volunteer work, political systems, legal aspects, economy, cultural/ethnic differences, environmetal protection, globalization, in order for students to be able to study further specific topics (human relations, activism, gender equality, sexuality and reproductive rights, modern media).
One of the challenges and problems civil society organizations observe is the political resistance to new textbook topics, thus the lack of education and interest of educators. Finally, this reveals that „in many schools, the representative student and parent bodies functions exlusively at a formal level“.
In recent decades, there have been many positive examples in the field of non-formal education in the R. of Macedonia. Many local and international non – governmental organizations have implemented different projects and approaches through informal education with support from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Macedonia. The projects have mostly been focused on the promotion of intercultural relations among all stakeholders in the educational system in the country.
- INCLUSIVE education and integration of migrants AND REFUGEES
Cultural differences in Europe and living in multicultural environments and in the time of ongoing migration further accentuates the need for intercultural competences as the necessary part of the individual make-up for active participation in today’s society, in order to be able to understand and co-exist with groups different than one’s own. This is however, relevant not only for the European citizens, but also for the migrants and third-country nationals, who are coming to Europe seeking asylum and protection. Their integration further emphasizes the need of intercultural education on both sides, thus not leaving intercultural competences in theoretical realms but putting them to practice.
The big migration to Europe started in 2015 with people coming to Europe, mostly from Syria and other countries from Western Asia, but also South Asia and Africa further contribute to multicultural horizon of European societies.
The need for intercultural education which includes migrants, third-country nationals and other cultural groups is also recognized and urged in the EU’s public policies and directives.
The European Commission created a common framework for the integration of third-country nationals in 2005. Within it, there are two dimensions linked to introduction and education of newly arrived third-country nationals. First is „Citizenship orientation in introduction programmes and other activities for newly arrived third-country nationals, with an aim of ensuring that immigrants understand, respect and benefit from common European and national values“. The second is „educational dimension in general, which emphasizes that enabling immigrants to acquire basic knowledge of host society’s culture is essential to successful integration“.
The Commission was supported by the Member States Common Basic Principles from 2004., adopted by the Justice and Home Affairs Council which form the foundations of EU initiatives in the field of integration, also stating the importance of education as necessary for successful integration.
Further, in 2011. a European Agenda for the Integration of Non-Eu Migrants, proposed by the European Commission, urged Member States to ensure to immigrants the provision of introductory programmes for newly arrived migrants, including language and Citizenship orientation courses. Together with this member states are urged to make efforts in education systems equipping teachers and school leaders with the skills for managing diversity, recruiting teachers from migrant backgrounds and participation of migrant children in early childhood education. The European Agenda was accompanied by the document that details EU initiatives supporting the integration of third-country nationals, specifically the item 4.4.2 social inclusion measures generally aim „to remove the barriers blocking effective access to social services and health services, e.g. by developing intercultural competences of service providers, targeted support for children and their parents through educational system, or provision of social services accompanied by language and Citizenship courses, often targeted at women“. Further, the item 4.8 of this document tackling education, emphasizes that „policy priorities are identified as based on the repeated conclusions of the importance of education for integration, including the development of policies for language learning, partnerships with parents and communities, developing teacher training, improving multicultural mediation, strengthening intercultural learning activities, increasing access to quality early childhood education and care, combating school segregation and increasing quality in underperforming schools, as well as providing additional support through tutoring, mentoring or guidance“.
This was once again confirmed their commitment to the implementation of the Common Basic Principles from the Framework for the integration of third-country nationals in the Justice and Home Affairs Council Conclusions of 5-6 June 2014.
Integration Action Plan, published by the European Commission in 2016., provides a framework to support Member States’ efforts in development and strengthening of their integration policies with the concrete measures the Commission aims to implement accordingly. In it education and training are seen as „the most powerful tools for integration and access to them should be ensured as soon as possible“. This specifically includes actions to promote language training, participation of migrant children to Early Childhood Education and Care, teacher training and Citizenship education.
It is evident from all of the public policy documents of the European Union concerning integration of immigrants that educational activities are one of the main means for integration. Further particular emphasis is put on both education of the culture of the host country, as well as the Citizenship education. This accentuates the need to integrate minor immigrants in the educational system of the host countries, including its intercultural aspect.
- INCLUSIVE EDUCATION AND INTEGRATION OF MIGRANTS AND REFUGEES IN CROATIA
In Croatia, the Act on International and Temporary Protection from the year 2015 (NN 70/15), by the Article 52 grants the applicant for international and temporary protection the right, among others, to elementary and high-school education. Article 58 Further states in the Item 1, that the child applicant exercises its right under the same conditions as a Croatian citizen. In the Item 3 it is stated that exercising of the right from the Item 1 of this Article will be enabled to the child applicant within 30 days from the day of the lodging of application until the decision on return.
Asylum Information Database’s report on Croatia from 2017 states that „not only does the law provide for access to education for asylum-seeking children, but also that children are able to access education in practice. However, there have been reported obstacles to accessing secondary education for asylum seeking children. The major problem when accessing school is still the language barrier, but there has been progress in the last few years, and children access the educational system more easily at the moment. According to the information provided by organizations that provide support to refuges and migrants such as the initiative Are you Sirius?, Initiative Welcome and the Croatian Red Cross, children attend individual classes of Croatian language organised by schools. There is a great need for interpreters. When accessing secondary education, if the child holds documentation about the education from the county of origin the introduction to Croatian high schools is easier but children that come without the documents have problem with the access. Unaccompanied minors face additional obstacles and they are placed in institutions.
According to the Ministry of Interior, some problems arose mainly relating to the organisation of preparatory Croatian classes, lack of documentation on previous education as well as in relation to the expansion of the so-called „e-matica“ system (centralised system of the Ministry of science and Education with the data of the pupils), as asylum seekers lacking means of identification such as passports have difficulties proving their identity and therefore difficulties with receiving an individual identification number (OIB) required for registration in this system.
In addition, several organisations provide educational activities and language classes in Zagreb and Kutina, the two centres in which refuges are placed.
In February of 2017, according to the official data, primary school was attended by a total of 60 children of international protection seeker parents. Of these, 21 children attended schools in Kutina and 39 in Zagreb. In July of 2017, 56 children were included in the schooling process, out of which 45 of them in schools in Zagreb and 11 in Kutina. The total number of refugee children, both those seeking and those who have received international protection during 2017 was around 200, according to the data from the Ministry of Science and Education. The number is relatively small, since the total number of children enrolled in elementary schools in Croatia in the school year 2016/17 was a little bit above 300,000.
The number of young people seeking international protection that were enrolled in secondary schools in Croatia, according to the data from March 2017, was 15. Three of those students are in Kutina, and 12 of them are in Zagreb; of which eight in total had the conditions for inclusion in the schooling process, of the total number of 180,000 of all high school students in Croatia.
There are various issues the students that are seeking or have received international protection are facing currently in Croatia. One of them is a non-unified process of testing the psycho-physical readiness and skills/knowledge of those students, where even though there are some procedures and official guidelines for the testing, in reality it comes to improvisational testing processes that differ from school to school. As mentioned, the students that are facing difficulties with receiving an individual identification number have issues with regular enrolment in schools, or when they are enrolled in schools difficulties with electronic records of their grades and progress. Preparation classes or additional classes aren’t systematically organised for those students, even though they are required by Croatian Law for the children seeking international protection that don’t know how to speak Croatian, or aren’t yet well versed in every day communication. Some of the students in the City of Zagreb haven’t received the textbooks for the regular (or preparation) classes, while the Croatian students receive free textbooks every school year. The Ministry of Education has also stated that there aren’t any Croatian language textbooks currently available for the additional language classes that the students seeking international protection must partake by law. Regarding local transportation to and from schools, the city of Kutina offers transport for the students seeking international protection as part of their program for the transport of Roma students living outside Kutina, but the non-Roma students have to wait for long times after school and the city has stated that it doesn’t have sufficient funds to provide a special transport program for the students seeking international protection. To many teachers the experience of working with foreign students and especially those with refugee and/or heavy traumatic experiences is an unknown field and a great challenge. Apart from the language barrier and the lack of knowledge of latin script, the teachers aren’t skilled in working with children that suffer from (war) trauma, they haven’t got any information about their childhood or their upbringing, there is no literature for teachers to prepare them for preparatory/additional classes they have with those students, as well as a major lack of communication with the parents again due to language barriers. The teachers also mention lack of any kind of support from the relevant Ministry of Education agencies that should provide them with the knowledge and skills for work with those students.
- INCLUSIVE EDUCATION AND INTEGRATION OF MIGRANTS AND REFUGEES IN ITALY
In Italy, persons granted the refugee status are granted similar access to educational services as Italian citizens – right to public education.
Asylum Information Database’s report for Italy from 2015 states that „Italian legislation provides that all minors, both Italian and foreigners, have the right and the obligation until the age of 16 to take part in the national education system. Under LD 142/2015, unaccompanied asylum seeking children and children of asylum seekers exercise these rights and are also admitted to the courses of the Italian language.1 LD 142/2015 makes reference to Article 38 of the Consolidated Act on Immigration, which states that foreign children present on Italian territory are subject to compulsory education, emphasising that all provisions concerning the right to education and the access to education services apply to foreign children as well. This principle has been further clarified by Article 45 PD 394/1999 which gives foreign children equal rights to education as for Italian children, even when they are in an irregular situation,. Asylum seeking children have access to the same public schools as Italian citizens and are entitled to the same assistance and arrangements in case they have special needs. They are automatically integrated in the obligatory National Educational System. No preparatory classes are foreseen at National level, but since the Italian education system envisages some degree of autonomy in the organisation of the study courses, it is possible that some institutions organise additional courses in order to assist the integration of foreign children.
In practice, the main issues concerning school enrolment lie in: the reluctance of some schools to enrol a high number of foreign students; the refusal from the family members and/or the child to attend classes; and the insufficiency of places available in schools located near the accommodation centres and the consequent difficulty to reach the schools if the centres are placed in remote areas.“
Asylum Information Database’s report for Italy from the 2017 states that „minors present in Italy have the right to education regardless of their legal status. They are subject to compulsory education and they are enrolled in Italian schools under the conditions provided for Italian minors. The enrollment can be requested at any time of the school year.
The law distinguishes between minors under the age of 16 and over 16. Minors under 16 are subject to compulsory education and they are enrolled in a grade corresponding to their actual age. Taking into account the curriculum followed by the pupil in the country of origin and his or her skills, the Teachers’ Board can decide otherwise, providing the assignment to the class immediately below or above the one corresponding to the minor’s age. Minors over 16 and no longer subject to compulsory education are enrolled if they prove proper self-preparation on the entire prescribed programme for the class they wish to follow.
Current legislation does not allow the establishment of special classes for foreign students and the Circular of the Ministry of Education of 8 January 2010 maintains that the number of non-nationals in school classes should be limited to 30%. Schools are not obliged to provide specific language support for non-national students but, according to the law, the Teachers’ Board defines, in relation to the level of competence of foreign students, the necessary adaptation of curricula and can adopt specific individualised or group interventions to facilitate learning of the Italian language.
As underlined by the Ministry of Education in guidelines issued on February 2014, special attention should be paid to Italian language labs. The Ministry observes that an effective intervention should provide about 8-10 hours per week dedicated to Italian language labs (about 2 hours per day) for a duration of 3-4 months.“
- INCLUSIVE EDUCATION AND INTEGRATION OF MIGRANTS AND REFUGEES IN SLOVENIA
In Slovenia, the Slovenian Law on Asylum (ZAzil – UPB1) Republic of Slovenia ensures conditions for inclusion of regufees in cultural, economic and social life of the Republic of Slovenia. With this particular
- It organizes trainings of the Slovenian language for refugees
- It organizes trainings and other kinds for continuation and vocational training of refugees
- It informs refugess with Slovenian history, culture and constinutitional arrangements
In the new Slovenian Law on international protection (ZMZ-1-UPB1), according to article 78., applicants for international protection have, among other things, right to education. According to the Article 88., provision 1, and in accordance with provisions regulating obligational elementary education, applicants are ensured the right to elementary education at latest three months from the day of the submission of the application. According to the Provision 2, applicants are allowed, applicant minor as well as unaccompanied minor with the legal reopresentative ensured access to education on vocational and high schools under conditions, valid for the citizens of the Republic of Slovenia. According to the Provision 3, applicants are allowed access to high-school and education of adults, under the conditions valid for the citizens of the Republic of Slovenia. According to the Provision 4, access to educational system is ensured within three months from the day of the application of the minor.
According to MIPEX, all migrant pupils may not advance as well through the education system, without equal access to non-compulsory and pre-school education except under reciprocity principles. They are supported in learning their own language and Slovenian, while teachers have some training on their needs. Positive developments in school might not extend beyond the classroom without monitoring or systematic policies to encourage parental involvement (see CA, FI, SE). Intercultural education appears as an official aim and, with 33 points, Slovenia scores above the low Central European average (see HU, PL, CZ). There is ad hoc funding and some possibilities to adapt curricula but no concrete measures to implement intercultural education in all schools, e.g. recruiting migrant teachers (DE, NO, UK).
- INCLUSIVE EDUCATION AND INTEGRATION OF MIGRANTS AND REFUGEES IN SPAIN
In Spain, The Law 12/2009 regulating the right to asylum and subsidiary protection, in the Article 36 on the effects of granting the right of asylum and subsidiary protection, grants persons in this category, access to, among other things, and education and integration programs under the same conditions as the Spaniards.
Asylum Information Database’s report on Spain from 2016 states that not only does the law provide for access to education for asylum-seeking children, but that also children are able to access education in practice. It states that „minor’s protection- related issues fall within competence of the Autonomous Communities, which manage education systems on their territory and must guarantee access to all minors living thereon. Asylum seeking children are given access to education within the regular schools of the Autonomous Community in which they are living or they are hosted in.
The scheme followed for integrating asylum seeking children in the school varies depending on the Autonomous Community they are placed in, as each regional Administration manages and organises school systems as they rule. Some Communities count on preparatory classrooms, while others have tutors within the normal class and some others do not offer extra or specialised services in order to ease the integration within the school“.
- INCLUSIVE EDUCATION AND INTEGRATION OF MIGRANTS AND REFUGEES IN MACEDONIA
In Macedonia, in accordance with the Law on Asylum and Temporary Protection (No. 07-3664/1), according to the article 3 an asylum seeker is an alien who seeks protection from the Republic of Macedonia from the day he has approached the Ministry of Interior until the day of issuance of a final decision in the procedure for recognition of the right of asylum.
According to the article 62, in the event of a mass influx, the Government may grant temporary protection to persons coming directly from a state where their life, safety or freedom have been threatened by war, civil war, occupation, internal conflict linked with violence or mass violation of human rights.
The Government re-examines periodically the existence of the conditions of paragraph 1 of this Article, and decides on the extensions of the temporary protection. The temporary protection in the Republic of Macedonia cannot last longer than two years.
According to the article 64, the persons under temporary protection have the right, among other, to primary and secondary education, and as regards the higher levels of education, the persons under temporary protection are equal to the aliens under temporary residence permit in the Republic of Macedonia.
According to MIPEX, „children cannot benefit from any integration measures for their specific needs, unlike in most new immigration countries in Southern and Central Europe. Macedonian schools are not prepared to meet the needs and opportunities that immigrant students bring, and do not encourage their contribution to society, as in most of the Balkan countries. Even though intercultural education is an official policy aim, it is largely absent from the curriculum and school life. Government support for cultural diversity promotion depends on ad hoc funding and implementation of the few available measures is mainly done through initiatives of NGOs and international organisations“.
Massimiliano (ed.) Intercultural Education in the European Context: Theories, Experiences, Challenges. London and New York: Routledge.